Category Archives: musings

On Goals and “Failing” to Reach Them

I’m at the Dreamspinner author workshop in Portland today. The previous two workshops have been packed with great information and a lot of fun, and I’m sure this one will be the same. One of the best discussions last year, led by Andrew Grey, was about setting goals for our writing.

Now, it’s worth saying here that Andrew is probably not the best example for most of us. Last year, he reported that in the previous year, he had written 1.1 million words. He was still working a full-time office job then, and he’d write a thousand words on his lunch hour every day. The man is a thousand times more dedicated than I will ever be!

One of Andrew’s biggest points is that goals should be things over which authors have complete control. Writing a novel is a good goal; signing a contract with a publisher for that novel isn’t. (But self-publishing that novel would be.) It’s fine to have wish lists (signing with an agent, getting a contract for that series, hitting a bestseller list), but those should be separate from goal setting.

As part of Andrew’s presentation, each of us set down a goal or two for our writing for the coming year. When my turn came, I went for something I considered midrange: 250,000 words, and two novels. I’ve written more words than that in a single year before, and I had two novels fairly well laid out and partially written, so it didn’t seem too much of a stretch.

Shows what I know.

I don’t want to make it sound like I flopped entirely. I did finish one novel, which is huge because that’s only my second one. I also completed a novella and three short stories. So it wasn’t like I sat around doing nothing. Technically, though, I fell far short of my goals. Counting all the stories I finished between last year’s DSP workshop and this year’s, I wrote approximately 114,000 words.

But the exercise was a good one because it taught me a big lesson: I needed to stop tracking word counts on a daily basis. When I do that, I pay more attention to counts than to story. I abandoned that practice early this year, and since then, I’ve written one complete short story (in less than a week) and wrote something over 40,000 words to finish a novel that’s been languishing for nearly two years. I’d call that a success.

What I’m doing now is counting words only in a general sense of accomplishment (“I’m over 55k on my novel!” “Got in 3,500 words today, wow!”) until I have a complete draft of the story. That 114,000 word count includes the three stories I’ve published in the past year, the one that’s on submission now, and the novel I just finished. I worked on several other projects, so my total word count is higher, but I don’t know how much higher, because I’m not tracking it.

For the past few weeks, I’ve been thinking about what my goals for the coming year should be. Finishing another novel, definitely. But I might skip listing a word count goal and focus on story count instead. I wrote five stories this year; for next year, I might go for five again, but try to make at least two of them novels.

At any rate, the last thing I’m going to do is kick myself for not hitting my goals. Setting those goals taught me lessons that will help me as a writer, and that’s the most important goal of all.

The Foodie Traveler, or How Not to Get Sick on the Road


As you’re reading this, I’m in Tampa at RainbowCon, getting my author geek on and spending my downtime doing some writing but otherwise being as lazy as possible. After the convention ends, I’ll spend a few days visiting with cousins who live here, during which time I hope to be by the pool or on the beach, for the most part. And then I fly to Portland (by way of Detroit) for the Dreamspinner author workshop. I’ll be back home a week from Sunday.


I started doing regular travel for work of one sort or another 15 years ago, and one of the biggest lessons I’ve learned is that I can’t stomach it unless I’m very, very careful. Oh, I’m mostly fine with flying, which was something I didn’t learn until I was in my 30s, because we never had the money to fly anywhere when I was younger. My problem is a tendency toward occasional motion sickness, which can happen any time and with any kind of motion but has certain triggers. Riding in the back seat of a car, for example, is usually a bad idea. And eating heavy or greasy meals before travel is right out.


When I’m on the road, I do my best to follow the usual travel guidelines. I get plenty of rest, drink a lot of water (most of it bottled), and try to eat healthy meals. That last part is tough when you’re eating out most of the time, but I pay particular attention to what I eat on days when I’m traveling. I’m lucky that I don’t have any serious food restrictions, but light meals on travel days are a must, and I also carry something snacky with me. A bout of low blood sugar is never fun but ten times worse when you’re sitting in an airport. I also stock various medications for various digestive-related ailments in the mini pharmacy that always goes into my travel bag.


(I’m trying to avoid going into much detail here. There’s TMI, and then there’s T. M. I.)


One thing I still try to do when I travel is eat locally. I don’t want to go across the country and then eat food I can get around the corner. I avoid chains, unless they’re regional and don’t exist near me (I’ll be visiting Wawa while I’m in Tampa). I’m happy to visit tourist-attraction restaurants (I will have a VooDoo Doughnut in Portland) but like to find the places where locals eat. I’m cautious about foods I’ve never had before, and I stick close to my regular personal guidelines (nothing too spicy, for example), but I firmly believe food is a big part of the travel experience, so I stretch as much as I feel like I can. Not that this plan is foolproof, but then, nothing ever is. 🙂


So wish me smooth travels and safe eating, all, and I hope I’ll have foodie stories to share when I get back home!

I Hate to Get Up In the Morning

wakeupclockI am not a morning person. Anyone who’s tried to carry on a coherent conversation with me before I’ve had coffee, a shower, or both can attest to how slowly I wake up. And oh, how I ever hate the blaring of an alarm clock.

It’s not that the alarm doesn’t wake me up. It’s that it DOES. I can’t sleep through something like that. I am a long-time snooze button master, though. I rarely turn off the alarm and go back to sleep (mostly, I don’t let myself turn it off until I’m sitting up), but I will snooze it forever. And ever.

I’ve tried a lot of tricks to make it easier to wake up. Some years back, my mom gave me a “progressive alarm clock” (from a Christmas wish list). It looks somewhat like a Dalek, but rather than EXTERMINATE, it ALARMINATES. It has settings for the usual buzzer-type alarm, but it also has various nature sounds and offset timing, so you can set it to start playing birds chirping first and then blare a buzzer fifteen minutes later. It also has a light built into it, and another setting will turn the light on a half-hour before the buzzer, starting at dim and gradually increasing in intensity. (There are settings for aromatherapy and to put you to sleep at night, too, but I haven’t used those.)

So for a while, I had my alarm clock set for a light to come on first, then songbirds, and finally the alarm. It worked for a while, too, especially in the winter when I’m waking up in the dark. But then I stopped noticing the light and the nature sounds, so I was back to the alarm blaring me awake. And snoozing it forever.

At the moment, I’m using two alarms on my phone. The first one is set to a soothing melody, at a volume loud enough to rouse me but not to blast me out from under the covers. I usually snooze my way through that one, but at least my brain is waking up. The second alarm, which goes off a half-hour later than the first, is set to something louder; at the moment, it’s a line from Spaceballs. (“I knew it! I’m surrounded by assholes!”) I change the tones occasionally so I don’t get too used to them.

Does any of this make it any easier for me to get up? Nope. The only time I ever wake up easily is when I can sleep until I wake up on my own. And that usually means sleeping until at least 9 a.m., so I only get that chance on weekend and holidays. But I’m waking up when I need to wake up, and as long as I have a day job, that’s going to be a requirement.

What I’ve started having trouble with more recently is making myself go to bed at night. You’d think since I clearly love to sleep that I wouldn’t have to force myself to do it. But alas, here I sit late into most evenings, unable to tear myself away to go burrow under the covers. I’m shooting myself in the foot every time, because the later I’m awake, the less sleep I’ll have by the time my medley of alarms wakes me. But my friends are in my computer! And they’re all saying such fun, interesting things! And if I go to bed, I’ll miss it!

*smacks self*


In truth, it really doesn’t make that much difference. If I go to bed at 10, I tend to wake up at 5, unable to go back to sleep. If I stay up until midnight, I want to kill my alarm when it goes off. Either way, I end up sucking down coffee to get my brain in gear so I can actually, y’know, function.

I think the harsh truth here is that I’m never going to wake up easily, no matter what alarms I set or what time I go to bed at night. I’m just going to have to be an adult and deal with it.

At least until I win the lottery and can sleep whenever I want. 😉

Image courtesy of Stuart Miles /

I Think I’m Breaking Up With NaNo

In a recent blog tour post for the re-release of her book Double Blind, Heidi Cullinan talked about how she’d originally written the book, the sequel to Special Delivery, during National Novel Writing Month. (And oh, by the way, if you haven’t read them? GO. Get caught up on the series now, because Tough Love is out next month.) Anyway, Heidi talked about how writing Double Blind was low pressure because Special Delivery had been sold but not released yet, so there was no one champing at the bit for her to finish.

My first novel, Sand & Water, was written during NaNo, too. (A year after Heidi’s, in fact.) I had a pretty solid story summary and the first 200 words written when I woke up on November 1 and dove in. I wrote 63,000 words in November and the other 23,000 or so in December. (I also realized about 30,000 words in that the original summary wasn’t going to be enough story, so I added on the remaining story that I’d thought might fit into a sequel. First lesson: you’re probably going to need more story than you think. LOL) And then I revised for a couple of months, submitted, and got published later that year.

I haven’t finished another novel since.

Oh, I’ve tried NaNo again. Sand & Water was my second NaNo project, actually. I wrote a fanfic project the first time around. But in the three years since my last success, I haven’t come close to finishing anything. I’ve tried several different methods, including some of the ones that helped with Sand & Water, but nothing has worked.

It’s a bit too early in the year for me to decide if I’ll give NaNo another shot in 2014. But even if I do decide against it, the experience has taught me that one size doesn’t fit all applies to everything, not just to differences between authors. Every story stands alone. Even when you’re writing a series, each book needs its own space and its own special handling.

Sand & Water is a fairly light, sweet romance, low on angst and conflict. I still like it. It’s the kind of book I like to read, and I’m proud to have my name on it. But writing it was akin to someone with a lot of debt paying off an account with a low balance. I got a great sense of accomplishment and pride, but that was just the first step.

Almost two years ago, I started on a new novel centered around a main character who’s loosely based on a friend of mine. I’ve written on it sporadically throughout that time. I’ve set it aside to work on shorter projects and then come back to it. It’s been my NaNo project. I’ve summarized it, used various plotting methods, brainstormed, and put into practice every other idea I can think of to get the damn thing written.

It’s still not done.

So. My goal for the rest of March is to finally finish this book. I’m pulling out all the stops. Call it National Novel FINISHING Month, maybe. But by April 1, I am determined to have a draft, no matter how rough it might be.

No foolin’. And no excuses.

Maybe Heidi will send Randy Jansen over to ride herd until I’m done.

What’s in a Name?

namegameHere’s a question I keep seeing crop up with some regularity: when should authors look into switching to a different penname?

Some things seem clear. If you’re writing adult fiction with graphic sex scenes, then you’re probably going to want to use a different name if you write something that’s for YA (or younger) audience. Or, say, if you’re hit by a plotbunny for an inspirational. If you write romance and cross over into an entirely different area—maybe crime fiction, or even nonfiction—a name change might be in order.

But what if you’re just switching subgenres within romance? If you write gay romance as A.B. Cee, do you need to switch to C.B. Ayy for “mainstream” (M/F) romance? Do you need an erotica penname separate from your romance handle? How about if you usually write light, fluffy romance but your new book is dark and disturbing? Is it worth the additional time, effort, and expense to promote two (or more) identities? What’s more dangerous: dividing your potential audience and possibly confusing readers, or taking a risk that readers will buy something they don’t want to read (and complain loudly about it)?

I’m not about to say that there’s a single answer here. Some authors have done well with two (or more) pennames, even within the romance genre. Adult versus YA seems to be a fairly clear-cut decision, as does romance/erotica versus non-romance genres. But some authors have dividing lines between M/F and M/M, between erotica and romance, between contemporary and paranormal/suspense/historical, and so on.

Two fellow authors who’ve posted about this very question recently are Marie Sexton and Sarah Madison. Marie has a new story in the works that’s a huge shift in tone from the usual for her, so she’s chosen to use a slightly different penname. She talked about her reasons here. And Sarah has been struggling with the penname decision, mainly for M/F vs. M/M stories, and she’s decided to take a survey to see what readers think. The survey is here if you’d like to share your thoughts. It’ll be open through Saturday. 🙂

Personally, I already have enough trouble juggling two identities, real-life and penname—and mine are fairly similar, so even that’s not a huge issue. I would definitely use a penname if I were to write for the under-18 crowd, simply because of the content of my published adult work, and I most likely would if I branched out beyond romance. But for romance, without some concrete numbers proving that it makes a substantial difference, I’m likely to stick with this name no matter what type I write. And even with that proof, I might stick with it anyway.

Why? Well, for multiple reasons, but in part it’s because I feel pretty strongly that one of the best ways to help move LGBT+ romance into the mainstream is to treat it as if it’s already there.

I completely understand why others have made, or will make, a different choice. In particular, for those who’ve been writing in both M/F and LGBT+ for a while, setting up different names was probably necessary when they started publishing, and it makes no sense to change that. For others, publishers or agents may have suggested (or insisted on) a different name, or authors might have needed to separate things for personal reasons. Some feel that readers won’t pick up an M/F book written by someone who also writes M/M, and that could have a big effect on sales. There are many valid reasons to use more than one penname for different types of romantic pairings.

Thing is, none of those reasons really apply to me. I use a penname because I have extended family who might cause drama over what I write, but my main purpose there was to shield my grandmother, and she’s been gone for almost year. I’m not reliant on my writing to pay the bills, and I don’t expect to move in that direction, so sales aren’t as much of a concern for me. And because I write part-time, I don’t have the time (or energy) to maintain an additional persona if it’s not truly necessary.

At the moment, the next few projects on my writing slate are gay romance, but coming up after that is at least one M/F pairing. More may well follow, but I have no plans to leave gay romance behind. I’ll write whatever kind of romance tickles my fancy. And as of right now, I plan to stick with Shae Connor for all of those stories. I hope people who like my writing will come straddle the fence with me. 🙂

Image courtesy of naypong /

8 Ways Authors Turn Social Media into Antisocial Media

socialmediaAs authors in the 21st Century, we need to be aware of where our readers are and how to reach them. I don’t think I’m telling anyone something new when I say that means paying attention to social media. The trick is how to reach those all-important readers without driving them away.

As I was working on this post, Forbes posted a pretty good article on how social media works: The Truth About Social Media. It’s got some great tips, but the main one that applies to my list is #5: Converse, don’t broadcast.

Everyone uses social media differently. Some people are on every service, some are active on just one or two services, and some ignore it completely. (I don’t recommend that last option, for the record.) What I see far too many people forgetting is the social part of social media. It’s not a broadcast box. You aren’t standing on a street corner handing out fliers for your comedy show and hoping they don’t end up in the nearest trash can. It’s a conversation. You’re talking to people, not at them. Or you should be, at least.

As a fairly heavy user of both Twitter and Facebook, I’ve come across a handful of practices that make me grind my teeth. If these things are annoying me, there’s a pretty good chance they’re annoying other people, too, but just to check, I asked on Twitter and Facebook what author practices drive people crazy. Most of the things that were mentioned were already on my list. (And big thanks to all of you who responded!)

In short: here are 8 things you as an author may be doing on social media to drive people (and thus potential readers) away.

Continue reading

Leveling the Playing Field

olympicsOver the past year or so, the news has been filled with stories of athletes coming out of the closet. Athletes in two major sports in the United States, Jason Collins in the National Basketball Association and Robbie Rogers in Major League Soccer, have taken the huge step of coming out. Pro boxer Orlando Cruz came out and has since gotten engaged. A number of individual and team Olympic athletes have come out as well, including diver Tom Daley, gymnast Josh Dixon, and women’s soccer star Megan Rapinoe. A total of six out athletes will compete at 2014 Olympics Winter Games, which start today in Sochi, Russia.

But not everything is coming up roses, to say the least. Jason Collins is still without a team. In the National Football League, two straight allies, Chris Kluwe and Brendon Ayanbadejo, spoke out in support of marriage equality, and another player, Kerry Rhodes, was rumored to be gay. All are teamless now. No one in professional baseball, hockey, or (American) football has yet to come out while an active player. (With the exception of Glenn Burke back in the 1970s.)

Google2-6-14And, of course, there’s Sochi. Russia’s new, severe laws against homosexuality have raised alarms worldwide, both for the people who are traveling there for the Games and for those who live there. The International Olympic Committee and a number of Olympics sponsors are under fire for not speaking out against Russia’s attacks—both figurative and literal—on homosexuality and homosexuals. Several world leaders, including President Obama, have declined to attend the Games, and the United States put together an official delegation that includes out former athletes. And yesterday, Google posted a new “doodle” (as shown) that makes its message rainbow-clear.

For every step forward, sports seems to take another step back when it comes to gay athletes. How will this all end? I don’t know. I know a lot of people in and surrounding the LGBT community are torn. Do we ignore Sochi in protest of Russia’s laws? Or do we watch to support the athletes, including those who are gay (openly or not)? It’s ironic to see the rainbow colors of the Olympic Games heralded in a city where waving a full rainbow flag can get you beaten, arrested, or worse.

principle_6_quoteOne rallying point for the Olympics issue has become the Principle 6 campaign, which is based on the part of the Olympic charter that reads: Any form of discrimination with regard to a country or a person on grounds of race, religion, politics, gender or otherwise is incompatible with belonging to the Olympic Movement. This new organization is raising funds to support LGBT advocacy groups in Russia, but they’re only one group that’s fighting this fight. A number of organizations have been leading the way in the efforts to make sports at all levels more accepting of athletes of all sexualities.

youcanplayRussianYou Can Play fights homophobia not just among players but also among fans and is “dedicated to ensuring equality, respect and safety for all athletes, without regard to sexual orientation.” YCP was co-founded by Patrick Burke (no relation to Glenn Burke), who’s the son of Toronto Maple Leafs general manager Brian Burke, who serves on the organization’s advisory board. Patrick’s youngest brother (Brian’s son), Brendan, was an openly gay college hockey player who was outspoken against homophobia in sports. He died in a car accident in 2010, and YCP was founded in March 2012 his memory. The version of the organization’s logo shown here reads “you can play” in Russian.

GO! Athletes focuses on student athletes, “educating athletes, coaches, administrators, and fans to foster athletic communities that are accepting of ALL, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.” Founded in January 2008 by seven current and former LGBT athletes, GO! offers peer support, training and workshops for staff and athletes, and educational materials to help fight homophobia, transphobia, and other forms of LGBTQA discrimination.

You Belong was founded by former NFL player Wade Davis, who came out last year and has just taken over as executive director of You Can Play. This initiative will be offering sports instruction and leadership development clinics for LGBTQ youth and straight allies nationwide. The first clinic was held in July 2013.

The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network’s Changing the Game project focuses on the kindergarten through grade 12 school levels. The program aims to help “in creating and maintaining an athletic and physical education climate that is based on the core principles of respect, safety and equal access for all, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity/expression.” Board members include Patrick and Brian Burke.

Each of these organizations has a lot to offer to LGBT athletes and their straight allies. I encourage you to check them out and donate your time or money if you can. Working together, we can help make it easier for talented athletes to play the games they love without losing out simply because of who they are.

World colors image courtesy of njaj /

Making a Few Changes

changeI’ve been a bit adrift, writing-wise, in recent months. I finished writing my story for the Butt Ninjas from Hell anthology on time, and I submitted an out-of-print story for re-publication in another anthology. But my WIPs are languishing, with only dribs and drabs being added here and there, and I can’t seem to focus on much of anything.

So, it’s time to make a few changes.

First, I’m dropping word count meters. I deleted the one that used to appear on this site, I’m filing away the spreadsheet I was using to track word counts, and I’m taking those numbers off the top of any story file I update from now on. Word counts aren’t the point. Finishing the story is the point. If that’s the 8,500 words it took to write my ninja story, the 81,000 words in my first novel, or some number higher, lower, or in between, then that’s how long the story will be. I’ve been getting bogged down in watching those numbers and forgetting about what’s really important.

Second, I’m cutting way back on my travel this year. I have two trips planned: Tampa for RainbowCon and Portland for the Dreamspinner author’s workshop in April (one long trip, since they’re back to back), and Chicago for GayRomLit in October. I’ll also be at the usual two local events, Outlantacon and Dragon Con, and there’s another local event I’m considering. Mainly, what this means is no RT and no RWA. The costs are just too high for the return at this point. I need to get more books out before those meetings will be worth the time and money.

Last, I’m going to start setting my own deadlines and rewarding myself when I meet them. When I have external deadlines (all three of my most recently completed stories had publisher-imposed deadlines), I meet them. It might be on the very DAY it’s due, but it gets done. I need to work on developing the discipline to set and meet deadlines of my own. As the first step, I have a self-imposed deadline to finish one of my WIPs by March 31. I don’t care which story; I have three strong contenders, though one is more likely than the others. My reward if I meet the deadline? Well, I might actually get a new story out in time for GRL, for one thing, but the real reward is more direct: a trip. (I have a specific place and date for that, but I’m keeping the details to myself for now.)

Okay. That’s enough navel-gazing for one day. I have things to do, and some of them might even involve writing. Hope you’re all having a good weekend!

Image courtesy of Stuart Miles/

Life and Other Complications

As those of you who follow me on social media may have noticed, I’ve been off my feet for the past few days after dropping a flute case on my foot from a height of about six feet. (Protip: put on shoes before you start a whirlwind cleaning effort.) Nothing is broken, but I didn’t stay off it for the first few days after it happened, so now I’m on day three of doctor’s orders to do so. Thankfully, it’s much better now, which is good, since I have three days in the office at the EDJ starting tomorrow, and that entails a walk of about a quarter mile from parking deck to cubicle.

rainbowheartsparkleAfter that, though, I have a long weekend for Independence Day, so I’ll be able to rest up more. I can even watch fireworks right from the comfort of my sofa! LOL

I’ll also be able to spend the long weekend writing. I’m working on two main projects right now. One is a best-friends-to-lovers story about high school football players. It would be the first in a trilogy to take them through their senior year of college. All three books are generally planned out, so now all I have to do is write them. The easy part, right? HA. In an attempt to focus, though, I’ve set an initial deadline of July 15 to have a rough draft of book one, so I’ll have something to talk about (if not actually pitch) at RWA. It will probably be VERY rough, but at least it’s something!

The other story is an erotic novella based around fetish play. So since the trilogy is a sweet romance, this is pretty much a 180-degree shift. It’s based on some observations from my trip to IML in Chicago last month, but since it’s not my kink, I’ll definitely be running it by some friends who are involved in that kind of play. (I wrote the first sex scene yesterday, and boy, that thousand words went by FAST.)

Unlike a lot of authors, I always have two (occasionally more) projects going at a time. I just get too bogged down trying to work on one at a time. I try to mix things up, though—in theme, length, style, content, etc.—so they work like palate cleansers for each other. My last two submissions were a sweet contemporary romance novella and an erotic scifi short story, written mostly at the same time.

Speaking of which, those stories are both in the editing/production pipeline. The short is due out later this summer from Wilde City Press, as part of their Charlie Harding Presents line. The novella will be part of a baseball-themed anthology with Kate McMurray, Marguerite Labbe, and Kerry Freeman, coming in the fall from Dreamspinner.

As far as longer-term planning, in addition to RWA, I’ll be in attendance at Dragon*Con (of course) and GayRomLit here in Atlanta, and I plan to be at both North Georgia/Marietta Pride (last weekend in July) and Atlanta Pride (second weekend in October). I’m also on the case for 2014 already, signed up as an author for RainbowCon in Tampa and with a hotel reservation for the RT Booklovers Convention in New Orleans next May. I haven’t decided for sure about RT, but it looks very likely at this point. The dates for Outlantacon aren’t final yet, so I’m hoping for no conflicts!

(Speaking of which, I had planned to go to the Folsom Street Fair against this year, because I had an amazing time in 2012. However, a family event may fall on that weekend, so it looks like I might have to miss it.)

Otherwise, well, life goes on. The EDJ is still there (and really, not particularly evil, except as jobs generally are). Family is doing well. Friends visited last weekend and we had a wonderful time. The weather is hot. Our apartment still needs work. My to-read list is extensive, and my book spending too high (not that that’s going to stop me). And it’s the last day of the quarter, so go out and buy stuff from your favorite authors so their royalty checks will be nice and fat, and they’ll keep on writing. 🙂


The last few weeks have been so jam-packed with activity that I’ve barely had a moment to breathe. I’ve had friends in town, gone to New York with friends, worked the day job, and finished some editing work. I’d signed up for Camp NaNoWriMo, but there was just no way with my schedule that I’d make any progress. And the next couple of months will be almost as busy, with trips to Ohio, Chicago, and Gatlinburg on the calendar, and Dragon*Con in there, too.

I’m home today for the Independence Day holiday, so I’m playing a bit of catch-up. Laundry is on the list, but more than anything, I’m trying to get some writing done. Trevor is my current big project, but I have two smaller ones with deadlines that are fast approaching. And, of course, I have a full pipeline of ideas waiting after that. The plotbunnies stop for no one!

I hope everyone in the US has a safe and happy Independence Day, and that everyone else has a great Wednesday. 🙂